A Journey into a Black Hole Collision

A Journey into a Black Hole Collision


(mellow music) – [Voiceover] Black holes
are extremely hard to see. They are objects so extreme and their effects on their
surroundings so unequivocal, virtually nothing escapes their grasp. When anything gets close
enough to a black hole and passes across its event horizon, there is no known way
to escape its capture. Stars, planets, dust,
gas, even entire galaxies can be devoured by these
quiet, deadly celestial traps. Until very recently we
didn’t know for certain that they even existed. Black holes were theorized
as an extreme limit in Einstein’s Theory
of General Relativity, but not until the detection of
gravitational waves resulting from a black hole merger were
they actually proven to exist. The primary way astronomers
see a black hole is by the observing the effect
it has on things around it. The earliest black holes were detected by observing powerful jets emitting by in-falling material
from a nearby unlucky star. These black holes were the size of stars roughly 30 to 100
times the mass of our sun. Later, we saw powerful gamma ray jets from the violently active centers of galaxies created as
entire stars fell victim to super massive black
holes millions of times larger than the sun. Since black holes are so
dark and emit no light or radiation of their own, we can only really see them
when they are near enough to something we can see. Stars, nebuli, interstellar gas and dust all become very bright
just before they fall in. They’re beacons of radiation becoming the celestial tombstones of its victim. The number of black
holes that we know about come to us through these indirect methods of interacting and destroying
those things we can see. But that’s not all of the
black holes that are out there, there are many more lurking
in the void all by themselves; quiet and completely dark. Sometimes if we’re lucky we
can find a lone black hole as it passes in front of a star or galaxy in our line of sight. The light from the distant
background body is bent around the boundary of the infinite
gravitational pull of the black hole in an effect
known as gravitational lensing. Useful for detecting primarily
stellar size black holes, these effects are very hard to
see and timing is important. We must have telescopes
pointed in their direction as they are passing in front
of the background object. We must be looking in the
right place at the right time. Otherwise, we miss it entirely. Still, astronomers have
found a few black holes using this method. There are so many, many more black holes we don’t know about. We need more ways to find them. Luckily, in September 2015 the Laser Interferometer
Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO, introduced a new
window to the universe that helps us see naked black
holes in a brand new way; gravitational waves. Predicted by Einstein 100 years earlier, they had never been detected. Their signal was so faint that there was no known technology
available to show them to us until now. Gravitational waves are generated when two extremely massive
objects come together, objects like black holes. This computer simulation shows the warping of space and time around
two colliding black holes. This event was actually observed by LIGO on September 14th, 2015, by seeing the gravitational waves
created in the encounter. The colored surface is the space of our universe as viewed from a hypothetical flat
higher dimensional universe in which our own universe is embedded. Our universe looks like a
warped two-dimensional sheet because one of its three
dimensions has been removed. Around each black hole
space bends downward in a steep funnel shape. A warping produced by the
black holes huge mass. Near the black holes the colors depict the rate at which time flows. In the green regions outside the holes time flows at its normal rate. In the yellow region it
is slowed by 20 or 30%. In the red regions time
is slowed extremely. Far from the holes the
blue and purple bands depict outgoing
gravitational waves produced by the black holes orbital
movement and collision. Our universe’s space as seen from this hypothetical
higher dimensional universe is dragged into motion
by the orbital movement of the black holes, and by their gravity, as well as their spins. This motion of space is
depicted by silver arrows and it causes the plane of the
orbit to precess gradually. The bottom portion of the simulation shows the waveform or wave shape of the emitted gravitational waves. The gravitational waves
carry a white energy causing the black holes to
spiral inward and collide. Here space-time is unimaginably distorted. The shapes of space and time
oscillate briefly, but wildly and then settle down
into the quiescent state of a merged black hole. We see the gravitational waves of the collision propagating
out into the universe. This collision and wild
oscillation constitute a storm in the fabric of space-time. A very brief but
enormously, powerful storm. During the storm the power
output in gravitational waves is far greater than the luminosity of all the stars in our
observable universe put together. In other words, this
collision of two black holes, each the size of a large city on Earth, is the most powerful explosion that astronomers have ever seen. Aside from the universe’s
birth in the big bang. Our new ability to detect and see gravitational waves promises to increase the census of known
black holes in the universe. We can now see black holes as they collide with one another something
we could not do before. With this discovery gravitational
waves proves definitively that black holes do indeed exist, and we need not invoke
some strange mathematics to explain the extraordinary
energy burst we see at the centers of galaxies
and some nearby stars. That black holes exist there
is no longer any doubt, but an important question remains, where are they?

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Comments

  1. Do you think the Event Horizon Telescope will be able to take the first ever real photo of the event horizon of a black hole until 2018?

  2. damn thiis is awesome… black holes are not from our universe but a result of two masses colliding in some other dimension.. crazy stuff bro

  3. It seems to me there are a few ways things can escape black holes. Hawking radiation, Quantum entanglement are two off the top of my head.

  4. you need to do more videos like this. ive been following you for about 3 years now. awesome vids..so.educational

  5. what if a super massive black hole becoming so large that it swallows itself could have been the big bang. since matter cant escape a black hole, if it were to explode with the universe's equivalent mass it could be so emmence that we called it the big bang. can someone look into thos theory cause i actually believe it to be very likely

  6. Great video – but the LIGO bullshit is just totally unbelievable, and totally irrational with so many counterarguments possible that it is totally irresponsible that Deep Astronomy would risk it's brand on such a flimsy premise and psuedo observation.

  7. Can someone explain the upwards motion of space shortly before the collision? By my understanding of what's going on, it seems like the animation is suggesting gravity pushes you away.

  8. two black holes merging create a power output similar to that of all the stars in the universe?!
    Perhaps that is how you travel faster than light

  9. Imprecise and probably inaccurate—for example public lecturers claim that our time fully stops at the Schwarzschild radius, but if true then the holes would halt collision at radius-contact and continue radiating gravity waves; Also, the mass loss of the pair furthermore implicates another type of 'evaporation' where much of a hole mass is outside, its hole….

  10. just in time for Einstein's 100 years prediction celebration and ligo funds being wondered… what a coincidence..

  11. Considenring that in the mid-point between black holes collision the resulting gravity must be zero (both sides cancelling each other out), it is possible for light to escape. i will say yes (give me my Nobel prize) 😉

  12. Why do the event horizons of the black holes in the simulation seem to repel each other right before the merger?

  13. 00:23 "Virtually nothing escapes their grasp" Was that a pun on virtual particles and Hawking radiation? 🙂

  14. Q:
    Did black holes necessarily come from
    exploding heavy or massive stars?
    What about stars that rotate around
    a common centre with no or little mass.
    Can such stars collide
    and change into a supernova
    or a black hole?

    And there are planets around dwarfstars
    that can become trillions of years?
    If such planets collect more and more dust
    from space, why can't they change
    into black holes?

  15. will you collabrate with spacerip anytime in the future? maybe you would produce better content together…
    both of the channels are best channels for astronomy videos…

  16. 6:50 – "astronomers have ever seen"
    Oh I didn't know astronomers are time travelers who were there at the time of the big bang looking at it from outside like some kind of God-like creatures…

  17. Do you think gravitational waves have the potential to give us insight regarding the singularity of a black hole?

  18. they call them "black holes" but yet they are 3D circles….not a hole at all..
    I call bullshit……question everything, even science..

  19. I'm doing an internship with NASA this summer, and we had a talk on gravitational waves, and I asked a question regarding the formation of gravitational waves. Everything causes gravitational waves I was told by the lecturer. The only way we get detectable gravitational waves is when two massive objects moving close to the speed of light collide into each other.

  20. I wish you did really long videos, you have the most soothing, easy to listen to voice out of any space videos. I just love it.

  21. its all about escape velocity. the escape velocity of a black hole is likely equal to that the speed of light, if not faster.

  22. I've watched a few of your vids. in a row. The one thing I have noticed, apart from their general excellence, is the audio quality. It changes with every video I have watched. Do you get lots of free microphones? 😀

  23. "By these quiet *celestial traps*"

    Black Holes sound like helicopters and are hella loud

    "They emit no light, or *radiation*"

    They release Hawking Radiation, which is what causes them to eventually evaporate, and die.

  24. My only problem is with “our” choice of names . A Black Hole , gives a pretence of nothingness but a Black Hole is the opposite and contains sooo much more than the “Space”, surrounding it .
    But there again I suppose it sounds better than say,
    “A High Mass non visual extreme gravitational well revolving around its axis”,
    Damn it ! Yep A Black Hole 😜🤪😃

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